Timian, Thymus vulgaris

Kaldes også Havetimian eller Spansk timian (T.zygis)

Billedresultat for timianDer er syv kendte kemotyper:

  1. thymol , vildtvoksende i lavland
  2. carvacrol , vildtvoksende i lavland
  3. geraniol, vildtvoksende i bjerge på solrige skrænter, sjælden
  4. linalol, vildtvoksende i bjerge
  5. thuyanol-4
  6. alpha-terpineol
  7. myrcenol

Primære indholdsstoffer;

Thymol kemotype :

Thujanol kemotype

Egenskaber: Kt. Thymol;

  • Bredspektret antimikrobiel virkning, antibakteriel, antiviral, antifongisk [16], antiparasitær [17],som de æteriske olier fra Thymus zygis og Thymus hyemalis [18]
    • Størsteparten af kemotyperne er antiinfektive uanset deres hovedkomponent (geraniol, thujanol, terpinen-4-ol, thymol, linalol), overfor Grampositive bakterier (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus aureus) og Gram-negative bakterier (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fragi) [19]
    • Thymol er antifongisk (Candida albicans, Aspergillus) og inhiberer produktionen af aflatoxiner [20]
    • Synergisk effekt sammen med antibiotika især overfor resistente linier af (Staphylococcus aureus resistent overfor methicilline MRSA [21], Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium) og d’Helicobacter pylori, antibacteriel overfor Enterococcus et Escherichia coli O157:H7 resistente overfor vancomycin [22]
    • Thymol og carvacrol virker inhiberende på de bakterielle membranpumper især i synergi. [23]
    • Thymol og carvacrol er bakteriostatiske og bakteriocide overfor d’Escherichia coli [24] og Shigella sp [25] især i etanol- eller stabiliserende opløsning som agar-agar eller carraghenane.
    • Monoterpenerne (menthol, thymol, linalyl-acetat) virker antibakerielt ved at påvirke den lipidholdige del af bakteriernes cellemembran. [26]
  • Styrkende og generelt stimulerende.
  • Fordøjelsesfremmende, karminatv, appetit fremmende, kolagoge
  • Revulsivt, rubefiant
  • Immunstimulerende
  • Cytotoksisk overfor kræftceller (skvamøst carcinom i mundhulen OCSCC) [27]
  • Antioxidant [28]

Kt. Thujanol;

  • Antibakteriel [1]
    • Især gynekologiske infektioner
  • Antiviralt
  • Immunstimulerende (stimulerer Ig A)
  • Styrkende og hepatocyt regenererende
  • Simulerende på blodomløbet, varmende ved oral indtagelse
  • Nervestyrkende og -harmoniserende
  • Antifongisk

Indikationer; kt thymol;

  • Ulcus Helicobacter pylori
  • Influenza, bronchitis, pneumopati, kighoste, lungehindebetændelse, forkølelse, bihulebetændelse
  • Dysenteri, infektiøs diarrhe, amøbedysenteri
  • Tarm- og hudparasitose (fnat, ringorm)
  • Iskias, lumbago, arthrose, rhumatismer ofte i form af ekternt kutant rødgørende analgesisk middel
  • Træthed, depression

Indicationer kt. thujanol;

  • Luftvejsinfektioner :
    • Forkølelse, halsbetændelse, bronkitis, bihulebetændelse, mellemørebetændelse, influenza, høfeber, snue
  • Stomatitis (inflammation i mund og læber), alveolitis, halsbetændelse, aphter (sår i munden)
  • Cystitis (urinvejsinfektion), vulvitis, vaginitis, salpingitis (underlivsbetændelse), uretriti (urinrørsbetændelse)s
  • Herpes (mund og gynæklogisk), kondylomer
  • Hudmykoser, (negle og gynæklogiske)
  • Leverinsufficiens
    • Viral hepatitis, cirrose
  • Kolde lemmer og acrosyndromer(blodkars forstyrelser) i hænder og fødder
  • Nervesvækkelse, depression
  • Arthritis, neuromuskulære forstyrrelser

Antagede virkemåder, kt. thymol;

  • Thymol er anti mikrobiel (påvirker lipiddelen i plasmamembraner), antifongisk (Candida, Aspergillus) og virker inhiberende på produktionen af aflatoxiner, forstærkende på effekten af amfotericin B på Candida albicans, synergisk sammen med antibiotika især overfor resistente mikroorganismer.
  • Antioxydant, neutraliserer frie radikaler og reaktive oxygen former : phenoler som thymol har redox egenskaber, der virker aktivt på  GABA membranreceptorerne.

Uønskede virkninger og forbehold, kt. thujanol;

  • Frarådes de tre første måneder af graviditeten
  • Hudirriterende (dermokaustisk) ved ufortyndet brug

Bibliografiske referencer, kt. thujanol;

  1. Schmidt E, Wanner J, Hiiferl M, Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Gochev V, Girova T, Stoyanova A, Geissler M. Chemical composition, olfactory analysis and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes geraniol, 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol, thymol and linalool cultivated in southern France. Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Aug;7(8):1095-8. PMID 22978238
  • Giraud-Robert A-M. Intérêt de l’aromathérapie dans la prise en charge des hépatites virales. Phytothérapie (2005) N°6
  • Thompson JD, Chalchat JC, Michet A, Linhart YB, Ehlers B. Qualitative and quantitative variation in monoterpene co-occurrence and composition in the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes. J Chem Ecol. 2003 Apr;29(4):859-80. PMID 12775148

Uønskede virkninger og forbehold, kt. thymol;

  • At undgå ved arteriel hypertension og takykardi
  • Frarådes børn under 6 år samt gravide og ammende
  • Mulig hudirritation (dermokaustisk) ved ufortyndet brug
  • Thymol er kun toksisk ved meget høje doser og allergiske reaktioner er sjældne

Bibliografiske referencer, kt. thymol;

    • Elisabeth Stahl-Biskup. The Chemical Composition of Thymus Oils: A Review of the Literature 1960–1989. Journal Of Essential Oil Research Vol. 3 , Iss. 2,1991, pages 61-82 [1]
    • A. Tohidpour, M. Sattari, R. Omidbaigi, A. Yadegar, J. Nazemi. Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytomedicine, Volume 17, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 142-145. [2]
    • Inouye S, Yamaguchi H, Takizawa T. Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on respiratory tract pathogens, using a modified dilution assay method. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, 2001a, 7 pp. 251-254
    • Al-Bayati FA. Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 28;116(3):403-6. PMID 18226481
    • Soković MD, Vukojević J, Marin PD, Brkić DD, Vajs V, van Griensven LJ. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules. 2009 Jan 7;14(1):238-49. PMID 19136911
    • Giordani R, Regli P, Kaloustian J, Mikail C, Abou L, Portugal H. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris. Phytother Res. 2004 Dec;18(12):990-5. PMID 15742351 [3]
    • Schnitzler P, Koch C, Reichling J. Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 May;51(5):1859-62. PMID 17353250
    • Nolkemper S, Reichling J, Stintzing FC, Carle R, Schnitzler P. Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Planta Med. 2006 Dec;72(15):1378-82. PMID 17091431
    • Chizzola R, Michitsch H, Franz C. Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 27;56(16):6897-904. PMID 18656929
    • Morimitsu Y, Yoshida K, Esaki S, Hirota A. Protein glycation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 1995, vol. 59, no11, pp. 2018-2021 [4]
    • Vigo E, Cepeda A, Gualillo O, Perez-Fernandez R. In-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Eucalyptus globulus and Thymus vulgaris: nitric oxide inhibition in J774A.1 murine macrophages. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Feb;56(2):257-63. PMID 15005885
    • Hyug Chun, Dong Hoon Shin, Bum Shik Hong Hong Yon Cho, Han Chul Yang. Purification and Biological Activity of Acidic Polysaccharide from Leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 24(8) 941—946 (2001)texte intégral
    • Amirghofran Z, Ahmadi H, Karimi MH. Immunomodulatory activity of the water extract of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis, and Zataria multiflora on dendritic cells and T cells responses. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2012;33(4):388-402. doi: 10.1080/15321819.2012.655822. PMID 22963488
    • Amirghofran Z, Hashemzadeh R, Javidnia K, Golmoghaddam H, Esmaeilbeig A. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of extracts from three plants of the Labiatae family and isolation of the active compound(s). J Immunotoxicol. 2011 Oct-Dec;8(4):265-73. doi: 10.3109/1547691X.2011.590828. PMID 21711089
    • Meister A, Bernhardt G, Christoffel V, Buschauer A. Antispasmodic activity of Thymus vulgaris extract on the isolated guinea-pig trachea: discrimination between drug and ethanol effects. Planta Med. 1999 Aug;65(6):512-6. PMID 10483369
    • Pozzatti P, Scheid LA, Spader TB, Atayde ML, Santurio JM, Alves SH. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008 Nov;54(11):950-6. PMID 18997851
    • Rota Maria C, Herrera Antonio, Martinez Rosa M, Sotomayor Jose A, Jordan Maria J. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus hyemalis essential oils. Food control, 2008, vol. 19, no7, pp. 681-687 [5]
    • Schmidt E, Wanner J, Hiiferl M, Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Gochev V, Girova T, Stoyanova A, Geissler M. Chemical composition, olfactory analysis and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes geraniol, 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol, thymol and linalool cultivated in southern France. Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Aug;7(8):1095-8. PMID 22978238
    • Rasooli I, Owlia P. Chemoprevention by thyme oils of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Phytochemistry. 2005 Dec;66(24):2851-6
    • Tohidpour A, Sattari M, Omidbaigi R, Yadegar A, Nazemi J. Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytomedicine. 2010 Feb;17(2):142-5. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.05.007. PMID 19576738
    • Selim S. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) and Escherichia coli o157:h7 in feta soft cheese and minced beef meat. Braz J Microbiol. 2011 Jan;42(1):187-96. doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000100023. PMID 24031620
    • Miladi H, Zmantar T, Chaabouni Y, Fedhila K, Bakhrouf A, Mahdouani K, Chaieb K. Antibacterial and efflux pump inhibitors of thymol and carvacrol against food-borne pathogens. Microb Pathog. 2016 Oct;99:95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.08.008. PMID 27521228
    • Marino M, Bersani C, Comi G. Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris L. Measured Using a Bioimpedometric Method. Journal of Food Protection, 1999, 62 (9), pp. 1017-1023(7) [6]
    • C. F. Bagamboula, M. Uyttendaele, J. Debevere. Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food Microbiology, Volume 21, Issue 1, February 2004, Pages 33-42
    • Trombetta D, Castelli F, Sarpietro MG, Venuti V, Cristani M, Daniele C, Saija A, Mazzanti G, Bisignano G. Mechanisms of antibacterial action of three monoterpenes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Jun;49(6):2474-8. PMID 15917549 Texte intégral
    • Sertel S, Eichhorn T, Plinkert PK, Efferth T. Cytotoxicity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil towards human oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2011 Jan;31(1):81-7. PMID 21273584
  1. Seung-Joo Lee, Katumi Umano, Takayuki Shibamoto, Kwang-Geun Lee. Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves(Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry 91 (2005) 131–137 texte intégral